For those new to the world of PLCs, getting a handle on what they are, what they do and how they do it can be somewhat intimidating at first. The same could also be said of computers, and of course that's exactly what a PLC is. Well almost!
In fact, there's a bit more to the average PLC than just a computer. There's no doubt that a computer is the heart of the beast, but then there's also all those interface modules (I/O) that allow the beast's computer to monitor and/or manipulate endless types of electrical devices and equipment. Then to make matters even more interesting, most PLCs aren't exactly programmed like other computers. PLCs were designed from the onset to be installed, wired, commissioned and maintained by electrical personnel rather than your average computer science grad. As a direct result of this electrical influence, the PLC programming language of choice evolved to become "Ladder Logic", a programming language that looks more like a wiring diagram than the structured lists of computer directives that are normally associated with languages such as C++ or Visual Basic.
So what does this all mean? Well basically what we end up with is really three significant areas of study when it comes to PLCs: (1) Computers, (2) I/O (interface) and (3) Programming. You don't have to be an expert in all three to work with PLCs, but you must have an understanding of all 3 before you can claim that you know how PLCs work.
Assess Your Needs!
Obviously only you can assess how much you already know and which method works best for you when learning new concepts. Many people need the contact and structure associated with a formal classroom environment while others can do quite well with a book and a little hands on to ingrain their new knowledge. Be practical, and most importantly be honest with yourself. How badly do you want to learn PLCs? How much effort, time and money are you willing or can afford to expend? Ask around, snoop around, shop around, and then make a plan and stick to it.
Formal PLC Courses
For many this is the only way to go and for most it's the best and quickest Method of learning the fundamentals PLCs. Course's are available in many formats, varied lengths and from many sources. Almost all have value, but the best are typically those which provide a 30 to 60 hour combination of instruction and Hands-on labs. Major PLC manufacturers, offer such programs, usually as single week Full time offerings; typically to small groups and often charge $1200US plus but this usually includes lunches and a full set of manuals. Many colleges and training Companies have directly copied the curriculum of these courses and offer these Knock-off programs to both day and night school students. Prices can get down to The $200-$300US range thanks to your taxes, but may often mean larger classes, poorer equipment sometimes, and definitely no free lunches.
If you're lucky and do a little shopping around you may be able to locate a high quality PLC course, taught at a relaxed pace and utilizing the latest in equipment at a bargain price right in your hometown. If you have a particular manufacturer of PLC in mind then this will of course effect your choice, but otherwise settle for any of the "Majors" and make sure you go for the Level I program. If you skip to an advanced level you will miss all the computer and hardware aspects which are so crucial to the understanding of PLCs.
Approaching PLC Training on Your Own!
Whether a PLC course is out of the question; you require a little more help with the theory, or you're just in need of more hands-on practice than is available in the course you're taking; then you have a couple of points to consider. There are two major learning components associated with any PLC training program, and from a training point of view they dictate the use of different skill sets and student activities.
First, there is the requirement to learn about the components of PLC systems, why the various components are there and how they work. This is the theory aspect of PLC training and is normally presented in a lecture format in the classroom. This material is best re-enforced with online or CD based tutorials, printed handouts, and/or a good PLC ****book.
Secondly, there is the hands-on aspect of the training. This is where the student is required to create, enter and debug PLC programs using their newly acquired knowledge of the PLC and it's programming instructions. In the past this aspect of the training always made use of actual PLCs which where wired to an assortment of switches, lights and displays and then programmed by the student via a programming terminal or a desktop computer running the PLC manufactures programming software. We couldn't achieve the realism of being wired to an actual industrial process such as a conveyor, but with a little imagination we made do. Today it is now much more common to use software graphics to simulate the controlled equipment and lately a number of packages can now also simulate the PLC as well.
Professor Bill's Recommended Course of Action:
I may well be biased with these suggestions and of course I reserve the right to change my mind in the future, but here goes!
Take a formal PLC course if possible. Unless you have access to actual PLCs at work you're going to be at a disadvantage trying to digest all the hardware details from just a book. For many there's nothing like having the physical product in front of them to re-enforce the details.
Purchase a good PLC ****book such as:
A Guide To Understanding PLCs by Phil Melore - The PLC Tutor ($39.95 US)
Programmable Logic Controllers by Max Rabiee - Goodheart-Wilcox ($51.00 US)
Programmable Logic Controllers by Frank D. Petruzella - Amazon.com ($96.60 US)
Fundamentals of Programmable Logic Controllers,
Sensors, and Communications by Jon Stenerson - Amazon.com ($115.00 US)
Each of these books is a good dollar value, and you essentially get what you pay for. There are certainly other good ones to be found, and almost any **** is better than having none at all.
Consider the Purchase of a CD based Tutorial Package. This is a bit more expensive than a book, but for many the interactivity of a good computer based training package (CBT) helps to keep one's attention focused. Take a look at The PLCTrainer which is available from Koldwater Technologies for just under $160, but this price also includes a copy of the CD/Key Edition of LogixPro..
Carefully work through the hardware and operations sections of the book or CD you have purchased and complete each of the end of chapter exercises. If you take your time and are thorough, you should end up with a pretty good grasp of the fundamentals of PLC operations, hardware and wiring upon completion of this task.
While reading the above chapters, go to both The PLC Tutor and the Siemens PLC sites and work through the appropriate tutorials they have available. If you don't have a computer with Internet access at home, then by all means this is the time to get one!
Once you get to the programming aspect of your book, download our LogixPro and/or PSIM program(s) and print out the ********ation and student exercises. Proceed with the student exercises in the order in which they are listed. When you start an exercise, reference the appropriate chapter in your ****book and read it thoroughly.
For ********ation of RSLogix commands and instructions supported by LogixPro. Refer to the Programming Command Guide site for examples and details.
While you are working on this course of action be sure to take time to investigate the PLC and Automation sites I have listed on my Links page, visit the Q&A boards at PLCs.net and/or MrPLC.com often and don't hesitate to ask a question while you're there. There are some really top-notch people who regularly drop by and they are more than willing to help others out.
What can you expect in the End?
Based on teaching PLCs for 15 years, there is one thing that I can guarantee that you will find out about PLCs and particularly Ladder Logic programming. The simple programs and instructions you start your training with are by far the hardest to grasp and clearly understand. As you advance you will be amazed at how much easier it all seems to get, It's just the nature of the Ladder Logic beast! So take heart, take it slow and don't skip to those advanced instructions until you know the relay logic ones off by heart. Yes they really are That Important!
If you fully accomplish all that I have set out for you above, you should now have an excellent grasp of the fundamentals of PLCs. That doesn't mean you are ready for a job as a lead programmer or that there isn't a lot more to learn. It does mean however, that you've gotten through the worst and you've proven that you're up to the challenge, and prepared to move on.
يتناول هذا الكتاب المعلومات النظرية والعملية التي تعتبر من أساسيات تصميم نظام Micro PLC. هذا النظام قفزة علمية تقنية كبيرة في مجال التطبيقات الصناعية للمتحكمات المنطقية القابلة للبرمجةPLC. وفيه تقديم مشاريع عملية تطبيقية بهدف تطوير القدرات البرمجية للقارىء من خلال تقديم أفكار برمجية متدرجة في المستوى, ومن هذه الأفكار: شرح أنماط عمل وحدة PLC أصغرية, وضع اعدادات شاشة العرض السائلة PLC, برمجة شاشة العرض السائلةPLC, برنامج للتحكم بعمل قشاط سير ناقل للزجاجات, برنامج التحكم بعمل مخرطة ميكانيكية, برنامج عملي لاستخدام ذراع آلي في عمل صناعي, برنامج للتحكم بعمل منشرة خشبية, برمجة عداد ربعي, برمجة عداد بدون قيم أولية, برنامج عملي لتطبيق المقاطعة الخارجية, تطبيق نموذج شبه منحرف تلقائي, برنامج عملي لتطبيق المقاطعة الزمنية, برنامج عملي لتطبيق مسك النبضة, دراسة آليات عمل وتصميم منظومات حركة, تنفيذ منظومة حركة بالاعتماد على نموذج شبه منحرف تلقائي ذي بحث منزلي, تنفيذ منظومة حركة بالاعتماد على تنفيذ نموذج شبه منحرف خطوي, تنفيذ منظومة حركة بالاعتماد على تنفيذ نموذج السرعة.